Turkish validity and reliability study of the flow experience scale in video games

Abstract views: 81 / PDF downloads: 64





Validity and reliability, Video Game, E-sports, Flow, Experience


The purpose of the present study was to adapt the “Scale of Flow Experience in Video Games” to Turkish language and culture. The “Scale of Flow Experience in Video Games”, which can reveal a lot of data such as identifying customer potential and revealing the interests of individuals by providing detailed information about those who are exposed to a video game as service providers, viewers or participants in the video game industry, and offers the opportunity to segment the extent to which video game players are affected by video games and to which extent they continue to play games depending on which effects. Since there is no measurement tool that can evaluate the flow levels of video game players in Turkish, we believe that this study will contribute to the literature. The research population consisted of a total of 334 individuals selected by convenience sampling method in the city of Eskişehir. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test the construct of the scale. As a result of the analysis, we found that the scale was above the values given in the literature for fit and showed good fit. In addition, the construct validity of the scale was tested. The Cronbach’s Alpha (0.969) internal consistency coefficient for the reliability of the scale consisting of 9 dimensions and 28 items was above the threshold given in the literature. Based on the findings, we determined that the “Scale of Flow Experience in Video Games” is a valid and reliable measurement tool. Therefore, it was concluded that the measurement tool, which shows the necessary psychometric properties for Turkish language and culture, can be used for activity participants in Turkey.


Arnould, E.J., & Price, L.L. (1993). River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(1), 24-45.

Aubé, C., Brunelle, E., & Rousseau, V. (2014). Flow experience and team performance: The role of team goal commitment and information exchange. Motivation and Emotion, 38(1), 120-130.

Brislin, R.W. (1970). Comparative research methodology: Cross-cultural studies. International Journal of Psychology 11(3), 215-229.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Faktör analizi: Temel kavramlar ve ölçek geliştirmede kullanımı. Kuram ve uygulamada eğitim yönetimi. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 8(32), 470-483. http://www.kuey.net/index.php/kuey/article/view/517.

Cai, X., Cebollada, J., & Cortinas, M. (2022). Video game players’ purchase behaviour of different types of in-game goods. Available at SSRN 3535180,34-45.

Celsi, R.L. Rose, R.L., & Leigh, T.W. (1993). An exploration of high-risk leisure consumption through skydiving. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(1), 1-23.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety: Experiencing flow in work and play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press, 15(6),31-45. https://blogs.baruch.cuny.edu/authenticityandastonishment2/files/2013/04/Mihaly-Csikszentmihalyi-Flow1.pdf

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(1), 93-94.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The evolving self: A psychology for the third millennium. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 54(4),78-92. https://www.academia.edu/43418544/THE_EVOLVING_SELF_A_PSYCHOLOGY_FOR_THE_THIRD_MILLENNIUM_MIHALY_CSIKSZENTMIHALYI_HarperPerennial_A_Division_ofHarperCoWmsPublisbers

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New york: Basic books, 23(3), 67-83. http://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2012.312A184

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Happiness, flow, and economic equality. American Psychologist, 55(10), 1163- 1164. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.10.1163

DeVellis, R.F. (2003). Scale development theory and applications. Applied Social Research Methods Series, 2(1) 26. https://books.google.com.tr/books?hl=tr&lr=&id=QddDEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP13&dq=DeVellis,+R.+F.+(2003).+Scale+development+theory+and+applications,+Second+Edition,+Applied+Social+Research+Methods+Series,+2(1)+Cume+26.&ots=OEkGzNDHbi&sig=Ls5hacG5ozTCbASWIQ9cETyOPPo&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Engeser, S., & Rheinberg, F. (2008). Flow, performance and moderators of challenge-skill balance. Motivation and Emotion, 32/3, 158-172.

Ergün, G., Özcan, E., & Yılmaz, Ö. (2020). A framework for enhancing flow experience in personalized recommendation systems. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 71(9), 1027-1039.

Failo, A., & Jankovic, M. (2013). Il Prendersi cura nelle cure palliative pediatriche. La Rivista Italiana di Cure Palliative, 15(3), 8.

Finneran, C. & Zhang, P. (2003). A person-artifact-task (pat) model of flow antecedents in computer-mediated environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59(4), 475-496.

Gentile, C., Spink, A., & Zhai, C. (2004). The effects of personalized recommendation agents on consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14(4), 332-348.

Ghani, J.A., & Deshpande, S.P. (1994). Task characteristics and the experience of optimal flow in human computer interaction. The Journal of Psychology, 128(4), 381-391.

Gümüşdağ, H., Aydogan, M., & Salehian, M. (2021). E-spor and health. Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences, 15(4).

Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri-feselefe-yöntem-analiz (5th digital ed.) Ankara: Seçkin,1-65. https://www.seckin.com.tr/kitap/733449175

Gül, M., Gül, O., & Uzun, R.N. (2019). Participation motivation scale for e-sports: Validity and reliability study (PMSES). Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 21(2), 281-294.

Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W.C. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Scientific Research Publishing, (7), 43-56.

Ho, L.A., & Kuo, T.H. (2010). How can one amplify the effect of e-learning? An examination of high-tech employees’ computer attitude and flow experience. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(1), 23-31.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives structural equation modeling. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/1070551990 9540118

Jackson, S.A. & Eklund, R.C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical activity: The flow state scale-2 and dispositional flow scale-2. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, (24),133-150.

Jackson, S.A. & Eklund, R.C. (2004). The flow scales manual. Morgantown wv: fitness information technology, Scientific Research Publishing 21(5), 41-56.

Jackson, S.A. & Marsh, H.W. (1996). Development and validation of a scale to measure optimal experience: The flow state scale, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(3),17-35.

Karakoç, F.Y. & Dönmez, L. (2014). Ölçek geliştirme çalışmalarında temel ilkeler. Tıp Eğitimi Dünyası, 13(40), 39-49. https://doi.org/10.25282/ted.228738

Kelly, K. (2017). The inevitable: Understanding the 12 technological forces that will shape our future. Penguin, 15(6), 34-41. https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/27209431-the-inevitable

Kline, P. (1194). An easy guide to factor analysis. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315788135

Lam, S., Smith, H., & Spink, A. (2020). Investigating the influence of personalized recommendation agents on user experience. Journal of Marketing Research, 57(5), 835-849.

Maeran, R., & Cangiano, F. (2013). Flow experience and job characteristics: analyzing the role of flow in job satisfaction, tpm- testing, psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 20(1), 13-26.

Manzano, Ö., Theorell, T. Harmat, L., & Ullén, F. (2010). The Psychophysiology of Flow During Piano Playing. Emotion. American Psychological Association, 10(3), 301-311.

Nakamura, J. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Flow theory and research, oxford library of psychology. Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, (Ed: Lopez, S.J., & Snyder, C.R. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 16(6), 45-56.

Pai, Y. P., & Chary, S.T. (2013). Dimensions of hospital service quality: a critical review: perspective of patients from global studies. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 14(5), 34-44.

Procci, K., Singer, A.R., Levy, K.R., & Bowers, C. (2012). Measuring the flow experience of gamers: An evaluation of the dfs-2. Computers in Human Behavior, (28), 2306-2312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.039

Rogatko, T. P. (2009). The influence of flow on positive affect in college students. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 10(2), 133-148.

Sidorová, D. (2015). Well-being, flow experience and personal characteristics of individuals who do extreme sports as serious leisure. [Doctoral Thesis]. Masaryk University, 4(3),1-123.

Singh, G. & Malik, N. (2017). Study of dimensions of flow state of badminton players. Journal of Indonesian Physical Education and Sport, 3(1), 10-18.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fideli, L.S. (2018). Using multivariate statistics. [7th Edition]. Boston: Pearson,1-89.

Tellegen, A. & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (absorption). A trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83(3), 268-277.

Ural, A.V. (2011). Bilimsel araştırma süreci ve SPSS ile veri analizi (3. Baskı b.). Ankara: Detay,1-97. https://www.academia.edu/8980277/Bilimsel_Ara%C5%9Ft%C4%B1rma_S%C3%BCreci_ve_SPSS_ile_Veri_Analizi

Wu, J.J. ve Chang, Y.S. (2005). Towards understanding members interactivity, trust, and flow in online travel community. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 105(7), 937-954.

Xu, Y., Li, X., Wang, Y., & Chen, J. (2019). Personalized recommendation with flow experience in music streaming services. [Conference presentation]. International Conference on Multimedia and Expo ICME 2019, (pp. 1-6). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/conhome/8777226/proceeding

Yaşlıoğlu, M.M. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, (46), 74-85.

Ye, X., Yao, Z., Liu, W., Fan, Y., Xu, Y., & Chen, S. (2014). Path analysis to identify factors influencing health skills and behaviors in adolescents: a cross-sectional survey. Plos One, 9(8), 34-42.




How to Cite

Erkan, M., Kocak, O. G., Nar, O. A., & Turan, E. (2023). Turkish validity and reliability study of the flow experience scale in video games. Journal of ROL Sport Sciences, 4(1), 303–320. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7741354