The effect of stay home intention in the imperative stay at home periods on physical activity at home: Mediating role of social media addiction

Abstract views: 167 / PDF downloads: 102




COVID-19, Stay Home Intention, Physical Activity at Home, Social Media Addiction


This study aimed to determine the effect of people's stay home intentions on physical activity at home using the social media addiction mediator. In addition, developing the scale of stay home intention, which is not found in the literature, is another goal of study. Quantitate research techniques were used in the research, and questionnaire was used as the data collected method. The questionnaire was shared on social media platforms and e-mails sent to registered mail pools. Data was collected from 575 participants in Turkey. According to the results, social media addiction has a mediating role in the effect of the stay home intention on physical activity at home. This study is thought to be important and fill a gap in the literature in terms of revealing the relationship between physical activity and social media usage variables of individuals who must stay at home in situations of COVID-19 and similar crises. Staying at home causes people to have some problems with social and physical activities. The fact that staying at home is mandatory and unplanned brings the need and difficulty associated with physical activity. 


Armstrong, N., Balding, J., Gentle, P., & Kirby, B. (1990). Patterns of physical activity among 11 to 16-year-old British children. British Medical Journal, (301), 203-205.

Asare, M. (2015). Sedentary behaviour and mental health in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior, 3(6), 1-10.

Ashton, J. (2020). The pandemic of coronavirus: tackling the latest plague. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 113(3), 123-124.

Ashworth, N. L., Chad, K. E., Harrison, E. L., Reeder, B. A., & Marshall, S. C. (2005). Home versus center based physical activity programs in older adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1).

Backer, J. A., Klinkenberg, D., & Wallinga, J. (2020). Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20–28 January 2020. Eurosurveillance, 25(5), 2000062.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action, Prentice Hall.

Banjanin, N., Banjanin, N., Dimitrijevic, I., & Pantic, I. (2015). Relationship between internet use and depression: Focus on physiological mood oscillations, social networking and online addictive behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, (43), 308-312.

Baranowski, T., Anderson, C., & Carmack, C. (1998). Mediating variable framework in physical activity interventions: How are we doing? How might we do better?. American journal of preventive medicine, 15(4), 266-297.

Baranowski, T., Bouchard, C, Bar-Or, O., Bricker, T., Heath, G., Kimm, S. Y. S., … et al. (1992). Assessment, prevalence, and cardiovascular benefits of physical activity and fitness in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24, 237-247.

Bar-Or, O., & Baranowski, T. (1994). Physical activity, adiposity, and obesity in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, (6), 348-360.

Basirat, M., Ebrahimi, P., Bouzari, P., Sharifi, S. M., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2022). Influence of diverse kinds of persuasive messages on intention to stay home during COVID-19 pandemic: Moderating role of media type. Telematics and Informatics Reports, 7, 100012.

Bassetti, M., Vena, A., & Giacobbe, D. R. (2020). The novel Chinese coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) infections: Challenges for fighting the storm. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50(3), e13209.

Blanchard, C. M., Reid, R. D., Morrin, L. I., McDonnell, L., McGannon, K., Rhodes, R. E., … et. al. (2010). demographic and clinical determinants of moderate to vigorous physical activity during home-based cardiac rehabilitation. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 30(4), 240–245.

Butt, J., Weinberg, R. S., Breckon, J. D., & Claytor, R. P. (2011). Adolescent physical activity participation and motivational determinants across gender, age, and race. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(8), 1074-1083.

Callow, M. A., Callow, D. D., & Smith, C. (2020). Older adults’ intention to socially isolate once COVID-19 stay-at-home orders are replaced with “safer-at-home” public health advisories: A survey of respondents in Maryland. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 39(11), 1175-1183.

Campbell, N., Gray, C., Foley, L., Maddison, R., & Prapavessis, H. (2016). A domain-specific approach for assessing physical activity efficacy in adolescents: From scale conception to predictive validity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, (22), 20-26.

Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment, Publications.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation, Lawrence Elbaum Associates Publisher.

Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., et al. (2020). The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science, 368(6489), 395-400.

Coşkun, R., Altunışık, R., & Yıldırım, E. (2012). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri: SPSS uygulamalı, Sakarya Yayıncılık.

Deters, F. G., & Mehl, M. R. (2013). Does posting Facebook status updates increase or decrease loneliness? An online social networking experiment. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(5), 579-586.

Dhir, A., Yossatorn, Y., Kaur, P., & Chen, S. (2018). Online social media fatigue and psychological wellbeing—A study of compulsive use, fear of missing out, fatigue, anxiety and depression. International Journal of Information Management, (40), 141-152.

Di-Clemente, E., Hernández-Mogollón, J. M., & Campón-Cerro, A. M. (2020). Tourists’ involvement and memorable food-based experiences as new determinants of behavioural intentions towards typical products. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(18), 2319-2332.

Doğan, D. (2019). Smart-PLS ile veri analizi, Zet Press.

Domínguez-Quintero, A. M., González-Rodríguez, M. R., & Paddison, B. (2020). The mediating role of experience quality on authenticity and satisfaction in the context of cultural-heritage tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 23(2), 248-260.

Eshelby, V., Sogut, M., Jolly, K., Vlaev, I., & Elliott, M. T. (2022). Stay home and stay active? The impact of stay-at-home restrictions on physical activity routines in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Sports Sciences, 40(3), 310-322.

Ferkel, R. (2011). Relations among physical fitness knowledge, physical fitness, and physical activity [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University]. Texas.

Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7(2), 117-140.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Foster, D., Linehan, C., Kirman, B., Lawson, S., & James, G. (2010, October 15). Motivating physical activity at work: using persuasive social media for competitive step counting [14th international academic MindTrek conference].

Greendale, G. A., Huang, M. H., Wang, Y., Finkelstein, J. S., Danielson, M. E., & Sternfeld, B. (2003). Sport and home physical activity are independently associated with bone density. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(3), 506-512.

Griffiths, M., Kuss, D. J., & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Social networking addiction: An overview of preliminary findings, Elsevier.

Güven, E. Ö., Çay, A., Özavcı, R., & Korkutata, A. (2021). Pandemi döneminde boş zamanı değerlendirme davranışlarının cinsiyet değişkenine göre incelenmesi. Türk Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(3), 2017-2035.

Haas, S., & Nigg, C. R. (2009). Construct validation of the stages of change with strenuous, moderate, and mild physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(5), 586-591.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis, Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling, Sage Pub.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414-433.

Hammami, A., Harrabi, B., Mohr, M., & Krustrup, P. (2022). Physical activity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): specific recommendations for home-based physical training. Managing Sport and Leisure, 27(1), 26-31.

Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2017). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review, 35(5), 576-586.

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based perspective, The Guilford Press.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modelling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20(1), 277–320.

Hoare, E., Milton, K., Foster, C., & Allender, S. (2016). The associations between sedentary behaviour and mental health among adolescents: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(108), 1-22

Hodge, C. J., Zabriskie, R. B., Fellingham, G., Coyne, S., Lundberg, N. R., Padilla-Walker, L. M., … et al. (2012). The relationship between media in the home and family functioning in context of leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 44(3), 285-307.

Hume, C., Salmon, J., & Ball, K. (2005). Children's perceptions of their home and neighborhood environments, and their association with objectively measured physical activity: a qualitative and quantitative study. Health Education Research, 20(1), 1-13.

Iannaccone, A., Fusco, A., Jaime, S. J., Baldassano, S., Cooper, J., Proia, P., … et al. (2020). Stay home, stay active with SuperJump: a home-based activity to prevent sedentary lifestyle during COVID-19 outbreak. Sustainability, 12(23), 10135.

Jiang, F., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Cai, Y., Cheung, C. W., & Xia, Z. (2020). Review of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of General Internal Medicine, (35), 1545-1549

Jin Jeong, Y., Suh, B., & Gweon, G. (2020). Is smartphone addiction different from Internet addiction? comparison of addiction-risk factors among adolescents. Behavior & Information Technology, 39(5), 578-593.

Juneau, M., Rogers, F., De Santos, V., Yee, M., Evans, A., Bohn, A., … et al. (1987). Effectiveness of self-monitored, home-based, moderate-intensity exercise training in middle-aged men and women. The American Journal of Cardiology, 60(1), 66-70.

Karagöz, Y. (2017). SPSS ve AMOS uygulamalı nitel-nicel karma bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri, Nobel Publishing.

Keles, B., McCrae, N., & Grealish, A. (2020). A systematic review: the influence of social media on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 79-93.

Kinmonth, A. L., Wareham, N. J., Hardeman, W., Sutton, S., Prevost, A. T., Fanshawe, T., … et al. (2008). Efficacy of a theory-based behavioural intervention to increase physical activity in an at-risk group in primary care: a randomised trial. The Lancet, 371(9606), 41-48.

Lenhart, A., Smith, A., Anderson, M., Duggan, M., & Perrin, A. (2015). Teens, technology & friendship. Pew Research Center.

Loureiro, S. M., & González, F. J. (2008). The importance of quality, satisfaction, trust, and image in relation to rural tourist loyalty. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, (25), 117–136.

Lowe, S. S., Watanabe, S. M., Baracos, V. E., & Courneya, K. S. (2012). Determinants of physical activity in palliative cancer patients: an application of the theory of planned behavior. The Journal of Supportive oncology, 1(10), 30-36.

Mannerkorpi, K., & Hernelid, C. (2005). Leisure time physical activity instrument and physical activity at home and work instrument. Development, face validity, construct validity and test-retest reliability for subjects with fibromyalgia. Disability and Rehabilitation, 27(12), 695-701.

Marcus, B. H., King, T. K., Clark, M. M., Pinto, B. M., & Bock, B. C. (1996). Theories and techniques for promoting physical activity behaviours. Sports Medicine, 22(5), 321-331.

McCartney, G. (2021). The impact of the coronavirus outbreak on Macao. From tourism lockdown to tourism recovery. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(19), 2683-2692.

Mccrae, N. (2019). The weaponizing of mental health. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 75(4), 709-710.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychological theory, MacGraw-Hill.

O'keeffe, G. S., & Clarke-Pearson, K. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127(4), 800-804.

Özavci, R., & Gözaydın, G. (2022). Rekreasyonel alan kullanımında koronavirüs kaygısının yaşam doyumuna etkisi. Tourism and Recreation, 4(2), 89-94.

Özgenel, M., Canpolat, O., & Ekşi, H. (2019). Social media addiction scale for adolescents: validity and reliability study. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, (6), 629–662.

Pantic, I. (2014). Online social networking and mental health. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, (17), 652–657.

Pinto, B. M., Papandonatos, G. D., Goldstein, M. G., Marcus, B. H., & Farrell, N. (2013). Home‐based physical activity intervention for colorectal cancer survivors. Psycho‐oncology, 22(1), 54-64.

Rhodes, R. E., & Nigg, C. R. (2011). Advancing physical activity theory: A review and future directions. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 39(3), 113-119.

Rosen, L. (2011). Social networking good and bad impacts on kinds: American psychological association, Dominguez Hills.

Rosen, L. D., Whaling, K., Rab, S., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1243-1254.

Salkind, N. J., & Frey, B. B. (2019). Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics, Sage Publications.

Sallis, J. F., Berry, C. C., Broyles, S. L., McKenzie, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1995). Variability and tracking of physical activity over 2 yrs in young children.-700 M. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 27(7), 1042–1049.

Sallis, J. F., Nader, P. R., Broyles, S. L., Berry, C. C., Elder, J. P., McKenzie, T. L., … et al. (1993). Correlates of physical activity at home in Mexican-American and Anglo-American preschool children. Health Psychology, 12(5), 390–398.

Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., & Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social networking sites, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review. JMIR mental health, 3(4), 1-19.

Soomro, B. A., & Shah, N. (2021). Examining the intention to stay home due to COVID-19: a pandemic's second wave outlook. Health Education, 121(4), 420-435.

Spurrier, N. J., Magarey, A. A., Golley, R., Curnow, F., & Sawyer, M. G. (2008). Relationships between the home environment and physical activity and dietary patterns of preschool children: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(31), 1-12.

Sumaedi, S., Bakti, I. G. M. Y., Rakhmawati, T., Widianti, T., Astrini, N. J., Damayanti, S., … et al. (2020). Factors influencing intention to follow the “stay at home” policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Health Governance, 26(1), 13-27.

Şengel, Ü. (2021). Chronology of the interaction between the industrial revolution and modern tourism flows. Journal of Tourism Intelligence and Smartness, 4(1), 19-30.

Şengel, Ü., Genç, G., Işkın, M., Çevrimkaya, M., Zengin, B., & Sarıışık, M. (2023). The impact of anxiety levels on destination visit intention in the context of COVID-19: the mediating role of travel intention. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, 6(2), 697-715.

Şengel, Ü., Işkin, M., Genç, G., & Çevrimkaya, M. (2020). Covid-19 ile ilgili ölüm kaygısının seyahat davranışına etkisi. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, 19, 105-121.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics, Pearson.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics, Pearson Education Publishing.

Taşçı, B., & Ekiz, S. (2018). Serbest zaman aktivitesi olarak sosyal medya bağımlılığı. [2nd Conference on New Trends in International Communication].

Tsoy, D., Godinic, D., Tong, Q., Obrenovic, B., Khudaykulov, A., & Kurpayanidi, K. (2022). Impact of social media, extended parallel process model (EPPM) on the intention to stay at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 14(12), 7192.

Turel, O., Brevers, D., & Bechara, A. (2018). Time distortion when users at-risk for social media addiction engage in non-social media tasks. Journal of Psychiatric Research, (97), 84-88.

Van Den Eijnden, R. J., Lemmens, J. S., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behavior, (61), 478-487.

Verschuur, R., & Kemper, H. C. G. (1985). Habitual physical activity in Dutch teenagers measured by heart rate. Children and exercise XI, Human Kinetics.

Viciana, J., Mayorga-Vega, D., & Parra-Saldías, M. (2019). Adolescents’ physical activity levels on physical education and non-physical education days according to gender, age, and weight status. European Physical Education Review, 25(1), 143-155.

Wang, C., Horby, P. W., Hayden, F. G., & Gao, G. F. (2020). A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. The Lancet, 395(10223), 470-473.

Worldometer. (2021, January 1). COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic.

Wu, F., Zhao, S., Yu, B., Chen, Y. M., Wang, W., Song, Z. G., … et al. (2020). A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature, 579(7798), 265-269.

Zhao, S., Ling, K., Yan, H., Zhong, L., Peng, X., Yao, S., … et al. (2020). Anesthetic management of patients with COVID 19 infections during emergency procedures. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 34(5), 1125-1131.

Zhou, P., Yang, X. L., Wang, X. G., Hu, B., Zhang, L., Zhang, W., … et al. (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature, 579(7798), 270-273.




How to Cite

Korkutata, A., Sengel, U., & Korkutata, E. O. (2023). The effect of stay home intention in the imperative stay at home periods on physical activity at home: Mediating role of social media addiction. Journal of ROL Sport Sciences, 4(2), 774–798.