The effect of continuous running on body hydration levels: A comparison between treadmill and outdoor environments


Abstract views: 88 / PDF downloads: 79

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10868151

Keywords:

Dehydration, Performance, Treadmill

Abstract

The literature indicates a negative impact of changes in body hydration levels, particularly on aerobic performance in athletes. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of completing an 8 km run in an outdoor setting and on a treadmill on body hydration levels. Fifteen female volunteer volleyball players with a minimum of 3 years of volleyball training experience participated in the study. However, only 10 individuals completed the study according to all study protocols. Body composition analysis was conducted before and after the runs in both environments. Additionally, specific gravity measurements of urine were taken to determine body hydration levels. Furthermore, completion times, minimum-maximum, and average heart rates of the runs were recorded. The statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences in body hydration level changes before and after the run in both protocols (p<0.05). Comparison of hydration levels between run protocols also showed significant differences (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in minimum, maximum, and average heart rates between the two run protocols (p>0.05). However, significant differences were observed in completion times between the run protocols (p<0.05). In conclusion, it is evident that treadmill running has a higher impact on body weight and body hydration changes.

References

Baysal, A. (1997). Beslenme (7. Baskı) Hatipoğlu Yayınevi.

Çırak, O., & Funda, P. Ç. (2017). Sporcularda sıvı dengesi ve performansa etkisi. Ankara Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 6(1), 139-150.

Demirkan, E., Koz, M., Arslan, C., & Ersöz, G. (2009). Determination of body composition and hydration status in cadet super leage wrestlers, European Sports Medicine Congress, P:105.

Demirkan, E., Koz, M., Arslan, C., & Ersöz, G. (2009). Sporcuların vücut hidrasyon durumunun belirlenmesinde farklı iki idrar ölçüm yönteminin karşılaştırılması. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(3), 111-114.

Demi̇rkan, E., Kutlu, M., Aktuna, Z., & Koz, M. (2010). Vücut hidrasyon durumunun belirlenmesinde farklı dört idrar ölçüm yönteminin karşılaştırılması. Türkiye Klinikleri Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(2), 70–74.

Demirkan, E., Kutlu, M., Koz, M., Özal, M., Güçlüöver, A., & Favre, M. (2014). Effects of hydration changes on body composition of wrestlers. International Journal of Sport Studies, 4(2), 196-200,

Demirkan, E., Kutlu, M., Koz, M., Ünver, R., Bulut, E. (2012). Elit güreşçilerde vücut kompozisyonu ve hidrasyon değişimlerinin incelenmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilim Dergisi, 14(2), 179 - 183.

Demirkan, E., Mitat, K. O. Z., & Kutlu, M. (2010). Sporcularda dehidrasyonun performans üzerine etkileri ve vücut hidrasyon düzeyinin izlenmesi. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 8(3), 81-92.

Von Duvillard, S. P., Braun, W. A., Markofski, M., Beneke, R., & Leithäuser, R. (2004). Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 651-656.

Ersoy, N., Uygun, S., & Ersoy, G. (2013). Ampute milli futbol takımının beslenme durumu ve antropometrik ölçümlerinin değerlendirilmesi. Fizyoterapi Rehabilitasyon, 24(1), 26-32.

Gigou, P. Y., Lamontagne-Lacasse, M., & Goulet, E. D. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of pre-exercise hypohydration on endurance performance, lactate threshold and Vo2max: 1679: Board# 116 June 2 3: 30 PM-5: 00 PM. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(5), 361-362.

Goulet, E. D. (2011). Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on time-trial exercise performance: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(14), 1149-1156.

Hillyer, M., Menon, K., Singh, R., Hillyer, M., & Menon, K. (2015). The effects of dehydration on skill-based performance. International Journal of Sports Science, 5(3), 99-107.

How long can the average person survive without water? (n.d.). Scientific American. Retrieved February 13, 2024, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-long-can-the-average/

How long can you live without water? facts and effects to survive. (n.d.). Svalbarði Polar Iceberg Water. Retrieved February 13, 2024, from https://svalbardi.com/blogs/water/living-without

How long can you live without water? Facts and effects. (2019, May 14). https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325174

Kavouras S. A. (2002). Assessing hydration status. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 5(5), 519–524. https://doi.org/10.1097/00075197-200209000-00010

Kelly, J. S., & Metcalfe, J. (2012). Validity and reliability of body composition analysis using the tanita BC418-MA. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 15(6).

Kyle, U. G., Bosaeus, I., De Lorenzo, A. D., Deurenberg, P., Elia, M., Gómez, J. M., ... et al. (2004). Bioelectrical impedance analysis—part I: Review of principles and methods. Clinical Nutrition, 23(5), 1226-1243.

Maughan, R. J., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2008). Development of individual hydration strategies for athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18(5), 457–472. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.18.5.457

Maughan, R. J., Watson, P., Evans, G. H., Broad, N., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2007). Water balance and salt losses in competitive football. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17(6), 583-594.

Clinic, M. (n.d.). How much water do you need to stay healthy? Retrieved February 13, 2024, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/water/art-20044256

Merrigan, J. J., Stovall, J. H., Stone, J. D., Stephenson, M., Finomore, V. S., & Hagen, J. A. (2023). Validation of Garmin and Polar devices for continuous heart rate monitoring during common training movements in tactical populations. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 27(3), 234-247.

Montain, S. J. (2008). Hydration recommendations for sport 2008. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 7(4), 187-192.

Mora-Rodriguez, R. (2012). Influence of aerobic fitness on thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 40(2), 79-87.

Navalta, J. W., Davis, D. W., Malek, E. M., Carrier, B., Bodell, N. G., Manning, J. W., ... et al. (2023). Heart rate processing algorithms and exercise duration on reliability and validity decisions in biceps-worn Polar Verity Sense and OH1 wearables. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 11736.

Özgünen, K. T., Kurdak, S. S., Maughan, R. J., Zeren, Ç., Korkmaz, S., Yazιcι, Z., … et al. (2010). Effect of hot environmental conditions on physical activity patterns and temperature response of football players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(s3), 140–147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01219.x

Perrier, E. T., Johnson, E. C., Mckenzie, A. L., Ellis, L. A., & Armstrong, L. E. (2016). Urine colour change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: A quantitative analysis. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(5), 1943–1949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1010-2

Pross, N. (2017). Effects of dehydration on brain functioning: A life-span perspective. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 70(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1159/000463060

Marriott, B. M. (Ed.). (1993). Water requirements during exercise in the heat. In nutritional needs in hot environments Nutritional needs in hot environments: Applications for military personnel in field operations. National Academies Press (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236237/

Sawka, M. N., Cheuvront, S. N., & Carter, R., 3rd (2005). Human water needs. Nutrition Reviews, 63(1), 30-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00152.x

Sawka, M. N., Montain, S. J., & Latzka, W. A. (2001). Hydration effects on thermoregulation and performance in the heat. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 128(4), 679-690.

Şen, N., & Aktaç, Ş. (2021). İçecek hidrasyon indeksi kavramı ve etkileyen faktörler. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Health Sciences, 6(1), 148-54.

Ünsal, A. (2019). Beslenmenin önemi ve temel besin öğeleri. Kırşehir Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(3), 1-10.

Wilmore, J.H, & Costill, D.L. (2004). Physiology of sport and exercise (Third Edition). Human kinetics.

Wittbrodt, M. T., & Millard-Stafford, M. (2018). Dehydration impairs cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 50(11), 2360-2368.

Zouhal, H., Groussard, C., Minter, G., Vincent, S., Cretual, A., Gratas-Delamarche, A., … et al. (2011). Inverse relationship between percentage body weight change and finishing time in 643 forty-two-kilometre marathon runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(14), 1101–1105. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.074641

Published

03/27/2024

How to Cite

Demirkan, E., Yilmaz, B., & Tosun, M. İsmail. (2024). The effect of continuous running on body hydration levels: A comparison between treadmill and outdoor environments. Journal of ROL Sport Sciences, 5(1), 20–29. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10868151