Investigation of the effects of fans' club image perceptions and fan group membership status on sports consumption behaviors
Abstract views: 56 / PDF downloads: 55
Keywords:Football, consumer behavior, image
This research was carried out to examine how Ankaragücü and Gençlerbirliği fans' perceptions of club image and being a member of a fan group affect their sports consumer behavior. This quantitative investigation employed the correlational research model in accordance with the general purpose of the research. The study group of the research consists of 193 participants, 122 of which are Ankaragücü fans and 71 Gençlerbirliği fans. Convenience sampling, one of the non-probabilistic sampling methods, was used as a sampling method. Further, a scale form that comprised three parts was used as the data collection tool. The first part of the scale form was the “Personal Information Form,” the second part comprised the “Sports Consumption Behaviors Scale,” and the third part involved the “Club Image Scale.” A regression analysis was used for a statistical evaluation. The results established that being part of a fans’ group have significant positive effects on the “intention to attend matches” and “media consumption intention” as well as on components of sports consumption behaviour but did not have a significant effect on the “intention to consume licensed products.” In addition, the present study found that club image did not have a significant effect on sports consumption behaviors. It can be said that being a member of a fan group influences on both the intention to attend the matches and the media consumption intention.
Altın, Ş., Ediş, L.B., Tüfekçi, İ., & Altın, B. (2020). Spor pazarlamasında lisanslı ürünlerin tercihinde, kulüp imajı, marka efangelizmi, takım sadakati ve takımla özdeşleşme değişkenlerinin etkisi (The effect of variables on club image, brand efangelism, team loyalty and team identification in the choice of licensed products in sports marketing). İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 12(4), 3759-3775. https://doi.org/10.20491/isarder.2020.1071
Apostolopoulou, A., Papadimitriou, D., Synowka, D., & Clark. J. (2012). Consumption and meanings of team licensed merchandise. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing 12(1/2), 93–110.
Apostolopoulou, A., & Papadimitriou, D. (2018). Examining the meanings and consumption of sport licensed products through team identification. Journal of Brand Management, 25(6), 536-548. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-018-0102-8
Arai, A., Ko, Y.J., & Ross, S. (2014). Branding athletes: Exploration and conceptualization of athlete brand image. Sport Management Review, 17(2), 97-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2013.04.003
Bauer, H.H., Stokburger-Sauer, N.E., & Exler, S. (2008). Brand image and fan loyalty in professional team sport: A refined model and empirical assessment. Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 205-226.
Beccarini, C., & Ferrand, A. (2006). Factors affecting soccer club season ticket holders’ satisfaction: The influence of club image and fans’ motives. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740600799154
Carenys, J., & Sales, X. (2012). Tailoring performance management systems: A sports merchandiser's case. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 2(2), 115-126.
Chen, C.C., Huang, C.C., & Chen, Y.J. (2017). Effects of negative information on team image, fan identification, and purchase intention among Chinese professional baseball league fans. International Journal of Organizational Innovation, 10(2), 95-105.
Chiu, W., & Won, D. (2022). Influence of sports fan ethnocentrism on identification and media consumption intention: A preliminary investigation with Taiwanese baseball fans. Sport in Society, 25(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2020.1772232
Da Silva, R.V., & Syed Alwi, S.F. (2008). Online corporate brand image, satisfaction and loyalty. Journal of Brand Management, 16(3), 119-144. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.bm.2550137.
Eddy, T., Reams, L., & Dittmore, S. (2016). Motivations and mediated consumption habits of users of mixed-martial-arts online message boards. International Journal of Sport Communication, 9(4), 440-459.
Enginkaya, E. (2014). Futbol taraftarlarının sponsor markalara ilişkin tutum, satın alma niyeti ve takımla özdeşleşmeleri arasındaki ilişki [The Relationship between Sponsor Brand Attitude, Purchase Intention and Team Identification of Football Spectators]. Marmara Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 36(2), 145-158. doi:10.14780/iibd.75351
Flavia´n, C., Guinalı´u, M., & Torres, E. (2005). The influence of corporate image on consumer trust a comparative analysis in traditional versus internet banking. Internet Research, 15(4), 447-470. DOI 10.1108/10662240510615191
Gladden, J.M. & Funk, D.C. (2001). Understanding brand loyalty in professional sport: examining the link between brand associations and brand loyalty. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 3(2), 67-91.
Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J., & Coney, K.A. (2004). Consumer Behaviour: Building market strategy. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 9th Ed.
Hedlund, D.P. (2014). Creating value through membership and participation in sport fan consumption communities. European Sport Management Quarterly, 14(1), 50-71. doi: 10.1080/16184742.2013.865775
Jian, W.S., & Li, Y.C. (2011). Research on brand image of baseball teams. Communication and Management Research. 11(1), 69-107.
Jung, C.W. (2012). The influence of professional sports team’s corporate social responsibility (csr) on team image, team identification, and team loyalty. Dissertation. Florida: Thomas University
Kargün, M., Dalkılıç, M., Ağaoğlu, Y.S., & Kızar, O. (2017). Spor kulüplerine yönelik kurumsal imaj algısının araştırılması. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2(1), 62-73.
Keller, K. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.
Kiremitci, O., Demiray, E., Aycan, A., & Gençer, R. (2014). Assessing the validity and reliability of the sport consumption behavior scale on Turkish football spectators. Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences, 5(2), 11-20.
Kim, Y.K., & Trail, G. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding relationships between sport consumers and sport organizations: A relationship quality approach. Journal of Sport Management, 25(1), 57-69.
Kim, D., Kim, A., Kim, J., & Ko, Y.J. (2019). Symbiotic relationship between sport media consumption and spectatorship: the role of flow experience and hedonic need fulfillment. Journal of Global Sport Management, 7(1), 1-23. doi:10.1080/24704067.2018.1550368.
Kim, M.J., & Mao, L.L. (2021). Sport consumers motivation for live attendance and mediated sports consumption: a qualitative analysis. Sport in Society, 24(4), 515-533. doi: 10.1080/17430437.2019.1679769.
Koronios, K., Psiloutsikou, M., Kriemadis, A., Zervoulakos, P., & Leivaditi, E. (2016). Sport sponsorship: The impact of sponsor image on purchase intention of fans. Journal of Promotion Management, 22(2), 238–250.
Koronios, K., Travlos, A., Douvis, J., & Papadopoulos, A. (2020). Sport, media and actual consumption behavior: an examination of spectator motives and constraints for sport media consumption. EuroMed Journal of Business,15(2), 151-166. doi: 10.1108/EMJB-10-2019-0130.
Lenneis, V., & Pfister, G. (2015). Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans. A case study in Denmark. European Journal for Sport and Society, 12(2), 157-185. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2015.11687961.
Meek, A. (1997). An estimate of the size and supported economic activity of the sports industry in the United States. Sport Marketing Quarterly, (6), 15-22.
Mullin, B.J., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W.A. (2007). Sport marketing. (3rd ed.) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Parganas, P., Anagnostopoulos, C., & Chadwick, S. (2017). Effects of social media interactions on brand associations: a comparative study of soccer fan clubs. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 18(2),149-165., DOI 10.1108/IJSMS-05-2017-087
Polat, E., Sönmezoğlu, U., Yıldız, K., & Çoknaz, D. (2019). Futbol taraftarlarının takım imajı, takım sadakati ve takımla özdeşleşme düzeylerinin belirlenmesi. International Journal of Sport Exercise and Training Sciences, 5(3), 143-153. doi:10.18826/useeabd.592699
Phua, J.J. (2010). Sports fans and media use: Influence on sports fan identification and collective self-esteem. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(2), 190-206. doi: 10.1123/ijsc.3.2.190.
Richard, J.E., & Zhang, A. (2012). Corporate image, loyalty, and commitment in the consumer travel industry. Journal of Marketing Management, 28 (5-6),568-593. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2010.549195
Rowe, D., & Gilmour, C. (2010). Sport, media, and consumption in Asia: A merchandised milieu. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(10), 1530-1548.
Ross, S.D., James, J.D., & Vargas, P. (2006). Development of a scale to measure team brand associations in professional sport. Journal of Sport Management, 20(2), 260-279.
Shuv-Ami, A., Vrontis, D., & Thrassou, A. (2018). Brand lovemarks scale of sport fans. Journal of Promotion Management, 24(2), 215-232. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496491.2017.1360824
Silva, A. (2020). Fans identification: the bright side of football sponsorship effectiveness. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 24(4), 251-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2020.1824800
Sönmezoğlu, U., Çoknaz, D., & Polat, E. (2016). Kulüp İmajı Ölçeğinin (KİMJÖ) Türkçe Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması [A Study on Validity and Reliability of the Club Image Scale (Cıs) in the Turkish Language]. Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 10(2), 270-279.
Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson.
Wheaton, B., & Thorpe, H. (2019). Action sport media consumption trends across generations: Exploring the Olympic audience and the impact of action sports inclusion. Communication & Sport, 7(4), 415-445.
Wu, S.H., Tsai, C.D., & Hung, C.C. (2012). Toward team or player? How trust, vicarious achievement motive, and identification affect fan loyalty. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 177-191. doi: 10.1123/jsm.26.2.177.
Yoshida, M., Heere, B., & Gordon, B. (2015). Predicting behavioral loyalty through community: Why other fans are more important than our own intentions, our satisfaction, and the team itself. Journal of Sport Management, 29(3), 318-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2013-0306
Yun, J.H., Rosenberger, P.J., & Sweeney, K. (2020). Drivers of soccer fan loyalty: Australian evidence on the influence of team brand image, fan engagement, satisfaction and enduring involvement. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 33(3), 755-782. doi 10.1108/APJML-07-2019-0444
Yurtsızoğlu, Z., & Gül, O. (2022). Spor takımı taraftarının etnosentrik tüketim eğilimi. Yönetim Bilimleri Dergisi, 20(45), 589-612.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.