The effect of digital leisure participation purposes on flow experience and leisure satisfaction

Abstract views: 46 / PDF downloads: 28




Leisure, Digital Leisure, Flow Experience, Leisure Satisfaction


The aim of this research is to examine the effect of university students' digital leisure activities participation purposes in on flow experience and leisure satisfaction. Relational survey model, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the research. Simple random sampling technique was chosen for the sample group. The study was carried out with a total of 731 (Age Mean = 20.75±2,468) participants, 268 women and 463 men. The demographic information form created by the researchers, the Digital Leisure Participation Purposes Scale, the Digital Leisure Flow Experience Scale and the Leisure Satisfaction Scale were used as data collection tools in the study. In the analysis of the data obtained, descriptive statistics, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling were performed by means of SPSS 25 and Jamovi programs. When the findings were examined, it was determined that digital leisure participation purposes had a positive effect on digital leisure flow experience and leisure satisfaction. In addition, it has been determined that digital leisure flow experience had a positive effect on leisure satisfaction. In the second model created, it was determined that digital leisure flow experience had a mediating role in the effect of digital leisure participation purposes on leisure satisfaction. As a result, with this study, it can be said that digital leisure participation purposes positively affect digital leisure flow experience and leisure satisfaction. However, it is possible to say that the digital leisure flow experience also had a positive effect on leisure satisfaction.


Arora, P. (2011). Online social sites as virtual parks: An investigation into leisure online and offline. The Information Society, 27(2), 113-120.

Ateca-Amestoy, V., Serrano-del-Rosal, R., & Vera-Toscano, E. (2008). The leisure experience. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37(1), 64-78.

Ayhan, C. (2022). Serbest zaman ilgilenimi, rekreasyonel akış deneyimi, rekreasyonel fayda ve serbest zaman tatmininin tekrar katılım niyeti üzerine etkisi [Doktora tezi, Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi]. Lisansüstü Eğitim Enstitüsü.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.

Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1980). Measuring leisure satisfaction. Journal of leisure Research, 12(1), 20-33.

Boyle, E. A., Connolly, T. M., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). Engagement in digital entertainment games: A systematic review. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 771-780.

Bryce, J. (2001). The technological transformation of leisure. Social Science Computer Review, 19(1), 7-16.

Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with amos: basic concepts, applications, and programming. Routledge.

Carnicelli, S., McGillivray, D., & McPherson, G. (2016). Digital leisure cultures: Critical perspectives. Taylor & Francis.

Chang, H. H. (2017a). Flow experience in the leisure activities of retirees. Loisir et Société/Society and Leisure, 40(3), 401-419.

Chang, H. H. (2017b). Gender differences in leisure involvement and flow experience in professional extreme sport activities. World Leisure Journal, 59(2), 124-139.

Cheng, T. M., Hung, S. H., & Chen, M. T. (2016). The influence of leisure involvement on flow experience during hiking activity: Using psychological commitment as a mediate variable. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(1), 1-19.

Chen, L. H., Ye, Y. C., Chen, M. Y., & Tung, I. W. (2010). Alegría! Flow in leisure and life satisfaction: The mediating role of event satisfaction using data from an acrobatics show. Social Indicators Research, 99(2), 301-313.

Chiang, Y. T., Cheng, C. Y., & Lin, S. S. (2008, Novenber 17-19). The effects of digital games on undergraduate players' flow experiences and affect. Second IEEE International Conference on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning, Banff, Canada.

Child, D. (2006). The essentials of factor analysis. Continuum.

Coşkun, R., Altunışık, R., & Yıldırım, E. (2019). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri SPSS uygulamalı. Sakarya Yayıncılık.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage.

Cushman, G., Veal, A. J., & Zuzamek, J. (2005). Free time and leisure participation international perspectives. CABI.

De Francisco, L. R., López-Sintas, J., & García-Álvarez, E. (2016). Social leisure in the digital age. Loisir et Société/Society and Leisure, 39(2), 258-273.

Elkington, S. (2011) What it is to take the flow of leisure seriously. Leisure/ Loisir, 35(3), 253-282.

Er, B., & Cengiz, R. (2022). Dijital serbest zaman etkinliklerine katılım amaçları: Ölçek geliştirme çalışması. Uluslararası Bozok Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 3(3), 11-28.

Er, B., & Cengiz, R. (2023). Dijital serbest zamanda akış deneyimi: Ölçek geliştirme çalışması. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 21(2).

Er, B., & Güzel-Gürbüz, P. (2021). Uluslararası spor organizasyonlarında gönüllü motivasyonu ile serbest zaman doyum düzeyi arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(1), 152-172.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage.

Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Sage.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gökçe, H., & Orhan, K. (2011). Serbest zaman doyum ölçeğinin Türkçe geçerlilik güvenirlik çalışması. Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 22(4), 139-145.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis, Prentice-Hall.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Pearson.

Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-step approach to using the SAS system for factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The SAS Institute.

Havitz, M. E., & Mannell, R. C. (2005). Enduring involvement, situational involvement, and flow in leisure and non-leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(2), 152-177.

Heo, J., Lee, Y., McCormick, B. P., & Pedersen, P. M. (2010). Daily experience of serious leisure, flow and subjective well‐being of older adults. Leisure Studies, 29(2), 207-225.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Juniu, S. (2009). The transformation of leisure. Leisure/Loisir, 33(2), 463-478.

Khang, H., Kim, J. K., & Kim, Y. (2013). Self-traits and motivations as antecedents of digital media flow and addiction: The Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2416-2424.

Kim, J., Jung, J., & Kim, S. (2015). The relationship of game elements, fun and flow. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(8), 405-11.

Kim, D., & Ko, Y. J. (2019). The impact of virtual reality (VR) technology on sport spectators' flow experience and satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, (93) 346-356.

Kline R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.

Kovacs, A. (2007). The leisure personality: Relationships between personality, leisure satisfactkion, and life satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation, School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation of Indiana University].

Meier, J. V., Noel, J. A., & Kaspar, K. (2021). Alone together: computer-mediated communication in leisure time during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, (12), 666655.

Mohammad, J., Quoquab, F., Halimah, S., & Thurasamy, R. (2019). Workplace internet leisure and employees’ productivity: The mediating role of employee satisfaction. Internet Research, 29(4), 725-748.

Nimrod, G., & Adoni, H. (2012) Conceptualizing E-leisure. Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure, 35(1), 31-56.

Pelet, J. É., Ettis, S., & Cowart, K. (2017). Optimal experience of flow enhanced by telepresence: Evidence from social media use. Information & Management, 54(1), 115-128.

Redhead, S. (2016). Afterword: A new digital leisure studies for theoretical times. Leisure Studies, 35(6), 827-834.

Schumacker, E., & Lomax, G. (2016). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modelling. Psychology Press.

Seçer, İ. (2017). SPSS ve LISREL ile pratik veri analizi, analiz ve raporlaştırma. Anı Yayıncılık.

Sepehr, S., & Head, M. (2018). Understanding the role of competition in video gameplay satisfaction. Information & Management, 55(4), 407-421.

Sharaievska, I., & Stodolska, M. (2017). Family satisfaction and social networking leisure. Leisure Studies, 36(2), 231-243.

Shelstad, W. J., Smith, D. C., & Chaparro, B. S. (2017). Gaming on the rift: How virtual reality affects game user satisfaction. SAGE Publications.

Shen, C. C., Tsai, C. H., & Tseng, T. A. (2022). The ınfluence of flow experience and serious leisure on attachment in board game. Leisure Sciences, 1-25.

Silk, M., Millington, B., Rich, E., & Bush, A. (2016). (Re-) thinking digital leisure. Leisure Studies, 35(6), 712-723.

Sintas, J. L., De Francisco, L. R., & Álvarez, E. G. (2015). The nature of leisure revisited: An interpretation of digital leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(1), 79-101.

Song, K. Y., Lim, Y. S., & Ahn, B. W. (2011). Relationships between leisure competence, leisure flow, and leisure satisfaction of university students participating in leisure activities. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 11(10), 425-433.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Allyn and Bacon.

Tao, H., Zhou, Q., Tian, D., & Zhu, L. (2022). The effect of leisure ınvolvement on place attachment: Flow experience as mediating role. Land, 11(2), 151.

Tavşancıl, E. (2002). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi. Nobel Yayınevi.

Tham, A. (2019). Rainbows looming large: digital leisure and youth innovation. World Leisure Journal, 61(3), 170-182.

Ullman, J. B., & Bentler, P. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling. Handbook of Psychology.

Valtchanov, B. L., & Parry, D. C. (2017). I like my peeps: Diversifying the net generation's digital leisure. Leisure Sciences, 39(4), 336-354.

Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, (46), 74-85.

Yıldırım-Şimşek, K., & Çevik, H. (2020). Development of the leisure activity participation scale (LAPS). Society and Leisure, 43(1), 98-115.

Zhang, R., & Rahman, A. A. (2022). Dive in the flow experience: millennials’ tech-savvy, satisfaction and loyalty in the smart museum. Current Issues in Tourism, 25(22), 3694-3708.

Wang, C. C., Chen, C. F., & Chen, C. T. (2015). Exploring the different aspects of Internet leisure use by college students. Information Development, 31(1), 5-12.




How to Cite

Er, B., & Cengiz, R. (2023). The effect of digital leisure participation purposes on flow experience and leisure satisfaction . Journal of ROL Sport Sciences, 544–565.