Physical fitness in windsurfing
Abstract views: 39 / PDF downloads: 27
Keywords:Performance, physical fitness, windsurfing
Windsurfing is one of the recreactive and competitive water sports. Especially in recent years, the performance values of surfers have gained importance due to its increasing popularity and becoming an Olympic sport. It is very important for windsurfers who are competitors to perform well especially in terms of strength and endurance parameters during the competition. In addition, other physical fitness components also play a key role in achieving a good performance and elite level. When the components that should be considered in the creation of training strategies for surfers in terms of physical fitness parameters are evaluated; knowing the physical fitness requirements for the sport and making a plan accordingly will contribute to the performance of the athletes. Considering this rationale, this study includes information about the physical fitness components required by windsurfing. In addition, performing the performance tests mentioned in the study before, during and after the competition season will help to have information about the performance status of windsurfers.
Alcantara, C. P. A., Prado, J. M., & Duarte, M. (2012). Analysis of the balance control in surfers during the erect posture. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, (18), 318-321.
American College of Sports Medicine (2010). ACSM's Fitness Assessment Manual, 3th edition. Wolters Kluwer Health. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Andrianopoulos, V., & Vogiatzis, I. (2017). Windsurfing: The physiology of athletic performance and training. Extreme Sports Medicine, 357-363.
Anthony, C. C., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., Galpin, A. J., & Tran, T. T. (2016). Stance affects balance in surfers. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 11(3), 446-450
Axel, T. A. (2013). The effects of a core strength training program on field testing performance outcomes in junior elite surf athletes. California State University, Long Beach.
Bell, D. R., Guskiewicz, K. M., Clark, M. A., & Padua, D. A. (2011). Systematic review of the balance error scoring system. Sports Health, 3(3), 287-295.
Bobbio, T., Gabbard, C., & Caçola, P. (2009). Interlimb coordination: An important facet of gross-motor ability. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 11(2), n2
Bojsen-Møller, J., Larsson, B., Magnusson, S. P., & Aagaard, P. (2007). Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(10), 1117-1128.
Bompa, T. O. (1999). Theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics.
Caraballo, I., Domínguez, R., Felipe, J. L., & Sánchez-Oliver, A. J. (2022). Key performance indicators of olympic windsurfers during a World Cup: RS: X class®. Journal of Sports Sciences, 40(23), 2645-2653.
Cardoso de Brito, M., Sutherland, L. S., Pereira, J. M. C., & Arruda, M. R. (2022). Fluid-Structure Interaction analyses for hydro-elastic tailoring of a windsurfer Fin. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(10), 1371.
Castagna, O., Vaz-Pardal, C., & Brisswalter, J. (2007). The assessment of energy demand in the new Olympic windsurf board: Neilpryde RS: X®. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(2), 247-252.
Castagna, O., Brisswalter, J., Lacour, J. R., & Vogiatzis, I. (2008). Physiological demands of different sailing techniques of the new Olympic windsurfing class. European Journal of Applied Physiology, (104), 1061–1067.
Corbin, C. B., Pangrazi, R. P., & Franks, B. D. (2000). Definitions: Health, fitness, and physical activity. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, (3), 1-8
Cortell-Tormo, J., Pérez-Turpin, J., Cejuela-Anta, R., Chinchilla-Mira, J., & Marfell-Jones, M. (2010). Anthropometric profile of male amateur vs professional formula windsurfs competing at the 2007 European Championship. Journal of Human Kinetics, 23(2010), 97-101.
Cunningham, P., Hale, T., Harrison, J. H., & Northcott, S. N. (1994). Estimated energy expenditure of elite competitive board sailing. Journal of Sports Sciences, (12), 133-140.
Department of Health and Human Services (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans. DHHS.
Dut, R., Dönmez, G., Kaymakoğlu, M., Talmaç, M. A., Işık, A., & Bayraktar, B. (2020). Analysis of joint range of motion, balance and injury among kitesurfers: A cross-sectional study. Spor Hekimliği Dergisi, 55(2), 122-130.
Dyson, R. (2006). Incidence of sports injuries in elite competitive and recreational windsurfers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(4), 346–350.
El-Ashkar, H. M., Amara, S., Al-Hadabi, B., & Mkaouer, B. (2023). Analysis of postural balance between two aquatic sports using vertical vs. horizontal body position. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, (27), 836-844.
Farley, O. R., Abbiss, C. R., & Sheppard, J. M. (2017). Performance analysis of surfing: a review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 31(1), 260-271.
Fong, C. M., Blackburn, J. T., & Norcross, M. F. (2011). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion and landing biomechanics. Journal of Athletic Training, 46(1),5-10.
Fosbøl, M. Ø., & Zerahn, B. (2015). Contemporary methods of body composition measurement. Clinical Physiology and Functional İmaging, 35(2), 81-97.
Gervasi, M., Fernández-Peña, E., Patti, A., Benelli, P., Sisti, D., Padulo, J., & Boullosa, D. (2023). Moderate intensity active recovery improves performance in a second wingate test in cyclists. Heliyon, 9(7).
Göral, K., Saygın, Ö., & İrez, G. B. (2012). Examining of reaction time of professional soccer players according to their playing positions. Selçuk University Journal Of Physical Education and Sport Science, 14(1), 5-11.
Guevel, A. (1999). Heart rate and blood lactate responses during competitive olympic boardsailing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17(2), 135-141.
Günay, S., Yıldırım, Y., & Karadıbak, D. (2014). The effect of the muscle endurance training on the chronic low back pain. Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, 25(1), 28-34.
Hadala, M., Vera, P., & Barrios, C. (2012). Anthropometry profile and its influence on injury pattern in America’s cup racing crew. Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies, 5(1).
Haff, G. G., & Triplett, N. T. (2015). Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Human kinetics.
Hays, R., & Reeve, B. (2010). Measurement and modeling of health-related quality of life. Academic Press- Elsevier.
Heath, B. H., & Carter, J. E. L. (1967). A modified somatotype method. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, (27), 57-74.
Jaszczcur-Nowicki, J. (2005). Power parameters of windsurfers performance. Extreme Sports Medicine, 20(14), 6371
Kioumourtzoglou, E., Derri, V., Mertzanidou, O., & Tzetzis, G. (1997). Experience with perceptual and motor skills in rhythmic gymnastics. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84(3), 1363-1372.
Kocahan, T., Güraslan, H., Kabak, B., Hasanoğlu, A., & Akınoğlu, B. (2022). Examining the relationship Between dynamic balance skill and reactive agility performance in karate athletes. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 24(2), 187-192.
Kunoth, A., Schlichtenmayer, M., & Schneider, C. (2007). Speed windsurfing: Modeling and numerics. International Journal of Numerical Analysis and Modeling, (4), 548-558.
Labadie J. C. (1984). Medicine and windsurfing. L’Union Médicale du Canada, 113(8), 640-643.
Lo, K. K., So, R. C. H., & Appel, R. (2013). Physiological Profiles in different levels of Hong Kong windsurfers. Research hightlights. Hong Kong Sport Institute.
Lowdon, B. J. & Pateman, N. A. (1980) Physiological parameters of international surfers. Australian Journal of Sports Medicine, (12), 234-39.
MacWilliams, B. A., Choi, T., & Perezous, M. K. (1998). Characteristic ground-reaction forces in baseball pitching. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(1), 66-71.
Mendez-Villanueva, A., & Bishop, D. (2005). Physiological aspects of surfboard riding performance. Sports Medicine, (35), 55–70.
Menevşe, A. (2011). Examination of the relationship between muscle palmaris longus and reaction time. World Applied Sciences Journal, 12(1), 114-118.
Michael, P. R., & Robert, C. M. (2018). Functional tests in human performance. İnsan Performansında Fonksiyonel Testler.
Miller, A. J., Grais, I. M., Winslow, E., & Kaminsky, L. A. (1991). The definition of physical fitness. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, (31), 639–40.
Natarajan, P., & Mallı̇ga, T, J. (2011). Hand to eye coordination error assessment using simple maze test. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(3), 1967-71.
Paillard, T., & Noe, F. (2006). Effect of expertise and visual contribution on postural control in soccer. Scand Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 16(5), 345–8
Pan, D., Zhong, B., Guo, W., & Xu, Y. (2022). Physical fitness characteristics and performance in single-handed dinghy and 470 classes sailors. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 20(1), 9-15.
Patterson, D. K. (2000). Physiological and physical fitness profiles of elite south african surfers [Doctoral dissertation, Arts University of Durban-Westville Durban].
Pérez-Turpin, J. A., Cortell-Tormo, J. M., Suarez-Llorca, C., Andreu-Cabrera, E., Llana-Belloch, S., & Pérez-Soriano, P. (2009). Relationship between anthropometric parameters, physiological responses, routes and competition results in formula windsurfing. Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis, (14), 95-110.
Platzer, H. P., Raschner, C., Patterson, C., & Lembert, S. (2009). Comparison of physical characteristics and per- formance among elite snowboarders. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, (23), 1427-1432.
Plisky, P. J., Gorman, P. P., Butler, R. J., Kiesel, K. B., Underwood, F. B., & Elkins, B. (2009). The reliability of an instrumented device for measuring components of the star excursion balance test. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 4(2), 92.
Pulur, A. (2010). Determination of physical and physiological profiles of international elite sailors. African Journal of Business Management, (5), 3071–3075
Rice, E. L. (2021). Surfing. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 61(8), 1098-1103.
Shephard, R. J. (1997). Biology and medicine of sailing. An update. Sports Medicine, (23), 350–6.
Shin, S. W., Park, T. J., & Seo, K. E. (2018). Effects of windsurfing exercise on the static balance ability and ankle muscle strength of male college students. Korean Journal of Sports Science, 27(2), 1259-1267.
Sporis, G., Vucetic, V., Jovanovic, M., Jukic, I., & Omrecen, D. (2011). Reliability and factorial validity of flexibility tests for team sports. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, (25), 1168-1176.
Suchomel, T. J., Nimphius, S., & Stone, M. H. (2016). The importance of muscular strength in athletic performance. Sports Medicine, (46), 1419-1449
Szymski, D., Achenbach, L., Siebentritt, M., Simoni, K., Kuner, N., Pfeifer, C., … et al. (2021). Injury epidemiology of 626 athletes in surfing, wind surfing and kite surfing. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 99-107.
Tantri, A., Asmawi, M., & Lubis, J. (2019). Effect of teaching style, eye coordination hand and feet on the results of learning groundstrokes in students faculty of sport science. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 8(4), 617-620.
Topendsports (2023, July 3). The complete fitness test list. https://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/index.htm
Turkeri, C., Ozturk, B., Buyuktas, B., & Ozturk, D. (2019). Comparison of balance, reaction time, attention and bmi values in individual and team sports. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(6), 119-128.
Turner, A. (2011). Defining, developing and measuring agility. Professional Doctorate in Strength and Conditioning, (22), 26-28.
Vogiatzis, I., & De Vito, G. (2015). Physiological assessment of olympic windsurfers. European Journal of Sport Science, 15(3), 228-234.
Vogiatzis, I., De Vito, G., Rodio, A., & Marchetti, M. (2005). Comparison of the physiological responses to upwind and downwind sail-pumping in windsurfers. Physiology, 33(2), 66-69
Vogiatzis, I., De Vito, G., Rodio, A., Madaffari, A., & Marchetti, M. (2002). The physiological demands of sail pumping in Olympic level windsurfers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(5), 450–454.
Wilke, J., Vogel, O., & Ungricht, S. (2020). Can we measure perceptual-cognitive function during athletic movement? A framework for and reliability of a sports-related testing battery. Physical Therapy in Sport, (43), 120-126.
Winter, D. A., Patla, A. E., & Frank JS. (1990). Assessment of balance control in humans. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 16(1), 31–51
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.